Mount Merapi National Park (Taman Nasional Gunung Merapi -TNGM) covers an area of 6.410 hectares, is an active stratovolcano located on the border of between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is the most active vulcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548, it is located approximateli 28 kilometres (17 mil) north of the large Yogyakarta city, and thousands of people live on the flanks of the volcano, with village as high as 1.700 metres (5.600 ft) above sea level.

Merapi is very important to Javanese, especially those living around its crater. As such, there are many myths and beliefs attached to Merapi.

The name of Merapi could be loosely translated as "Mountain of fire". The etymology of the name came from Meru-Api; from the Javanese combined world Meru means 'mountain' refer to mythical mountain of Gods in Hinduism, and Api means 'fire'.  Smoke can be seen emerging from the mountain top at least 300 days a year, and severel eruptions have caused fatalities. Hot gas from the large explosion killed 27 people on November 22, 1994, mostly in the town of Muntilan, west of the volcano. Another large eruption occured in 2006, shortly before the Yogyakarta earthquake. In light of the hazard that Merapi poses to populated areas, it has been designated as one of the Decade volcanoes.

Merapi is the youngest in a group of volcanoes in southern Java. It is situated at a subduction zone, where the Indo-Australian Plate is subducting under the Eurasian Plate. It is one of at least 129 active volcanoes in Indonesia, part of the volcano is located in the Southeastern part of the Pacific Ring of Fire - a section of fault lines stretching form the Western Hemisphere through Japan and South East Asia. Stratigraphic analysis reveals that eruption were typically effusive, and the out flowing lava emitted was basaltic. Since then, eruptions have become more explosive, with viscous andesitic lavas often generating lava domes. Dome collapse has often generated pyroclastic flows, and larger explosions, which have resulted in eruption columns, have also generated pyroclastic flows through column collapse.

In late October 2010 the Center of Vulcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Geological Agency (CVGHM) - Pusat Vulkanologi & Mitigasi Bencana Geologi, Badan Geologi (PVMBG), reported that a pattern of increasing seismicity form Merapi had begun to emerge in early September.

Observers at Babadan, 7 kilometres west and Kaliurang, 8 kilometres south or the mountain reported hearing an avalanceh on September 12,2010. On September 13, 2010 white plumes were observed rising 800 metres above the crater. Lava dome inflation, detected since March, increased from background level of 0,1 milimetres to 0,3 milimetres per day to a rate of 11 milimetres per day on September 16, 2010. On September 19,2010 earthquakes continued to be numerous, and the next day CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale 1 - 4). Lava from Mount Merapi in Central Java began flowing down the Gendol River on October 23 - 24, 2010 signaling the likelihood of an imminen eruption.

On October 25, 2010 the Indonesian government raised the alert for Mount Merapi to its highest level (4)  and warned villagers in threatened areas to move to safer ground. People living within a 10 kilometres zone were told to evacuate. The evacuation order affected at least 19.000 people, however, the number that complied at the time remained unclear to authorities. Officials said about 500 volcanic earthquake had been recorded on the mountain over the weekend of October 23 -24, 2010, and that the magma had risen about 1 kilometre below the surface due to the seismic activity.

After a period of multiple eruptions considered to exceed the intensity and duration of those in 1872. On November 10, 2010 the intensity and frequency of eruptions was noticed to subside. By this time, 153 people had been reported to have been killed and 320.000 were displaced. Later the eruptive acivities again increased requiring a continuation of the Level 4 alert and continued provision of exclusion zones around the volcano. By November 18,2010 the deat toll had increased to 275. The toll had risen 0 324 by November 24, 2010, and National Disaster Mitigation Agency (BNPB) explained that the death toll had risen after a number of victim succumbed to severe burns and more bodies were found on the volcano's slope.

Declared by Minister of F0restri No. 134/Menhut-II/2004. May, 4, 2004.