Way Kambas

Way Kambas National Park is a national park covering 125.621,30 hectares in Lampung province, Southern Sumatra, Indonesia.

It consists of swamp forest and lowland rain forest, mostly of secondary growth as result of extensive logging in the 1960 and 1970. Despite decreasing populations, the park still has a few critically endangered Sumatran Tigers, Sumatran Elephan and Sumatran Rhinoceroses. It also provides excellent birdwatching, with the rare White-winged Wood Duck among the over 320 species present in the park.

Threats to the park are posed by poaching and habitat loss due to the illegal logging. Conservation efforts include patrolling and the establishment of the Sumatran Rhino Sanctuary and the Elephant Conservation Centre.

Way Kambas has ben established as game reserve by the Dutch administration in 1937, but only in 1989 has been declared a National Park.

Significant encroachment has occured along the southern boundary of the park by villagers claiming traditional land rights. Road and trails into the park are starting point for illegal logging that penetrates into the interior of the park. This resulted in the forest coverage declining to 60 % of the park. In 2009 - 2010 an area of 6.000 hectares which was occupied by squatters for decades has been evicted.

Wells left behind by relocated communities in 1984, have proven to be deadly traps for the animals, including baby elephants, rhinos and tigers. In a conservation effort between 2008 and 2010 around 2.000 wells have been closed.

The park has many species of plant include Avicennia marina, Sonneratia species, Nypa fruticans, Melaleuca leucadendra, Syzygium polianthum, Pandanus species, Schima wallichii, Shorea species, Dipterocarpus gracilis and Gonystylus bancanus. The sandy shores or the park are dominated by Casuarina equisetifolia.

The park has 50 species of mammals, many of them critically endangered. There are about 20 Sumatran Rhinoceros in the area, down from around 40 in 1990. The number of Sumatran Elephants in the park was estimated to 180 in 2005. The population of Sumatran Tigers has declined from 36 - 40 in 2000, to less than 30. Other mammals in the park are Malayan Tapir, Dhole (Cuon alpinus sumatrensis) and Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus syndactylus).

Way Kambas has a lot to offer for birdwatchers. Over 320 species of birds have been recorde in the park with several members of prized families like pheasants, broadbills, pittas, hornbills and frogmouths present. The main vegetation type is lowland dipterocarp rainforest, which is almost entirely secondary. Much swamp-forest, especially nibung swamp, are still to be found in mor or less their original condition. These areas are probably the best place in the world to see White-winged Duck (Catrina scutulata). In the dry season, when the water level is low, you have a good chance of finding these shy and wary birds. The most reliable areas have been in the Rawa Gajah (Elephant swamp) swamps upriver from Way Kanan. Other swamp forest specialities also present here include Storm's Stork Ciconia stormi and Lesser Adjutant (Leptoptilos Javanicus).

For most birders, however, Way Kambas means the ultimate night-birding heaven in Asia, not only the great variety of the otherwise scarce and hard to-come-by species is what makes this national park world famous but also the relative ease in finding them. Way Kambas is by far the most reliable site in the world for Large Frogmouth (Batrachostomus auritus) and the near endemic Bonaparte's Nightjar (Caprimulgus concretus). Other interesting nightbirds include Gould's B. stellatus and Sunda Frogmouths B. cornutus, Oriental Bay Owl (Otus rufescens) and Malaysian Eared Nightjar (Eurostopodus temminckii). All these target can be found aling the main jeep-track. Dusk is usually better for the nightjar and scops owls, while later in the night, especially around 22:00 and 04:30, is better for the Frogmouths and Oriental Bay Owl.

If your time in Way Kambas National Park is limited, we would suggest birding at the Way Kanan substation and concentrating on the main jeep track, the loop trail an the Rawa Gajah Swamps.

The Elephant Conservation Centre (ECC) has been established in the 1980. The elephants in the centre have been domesticated and used for heavy work, ecotourism, patrol and breeding. The ECC will be provided with an Elephant Hospital which will become the first of its kind in Indonesia and the largest in Asia. The Elephant hospital will be bulit on a 5-hectares area with a Rp. 10 billion ($ 1,11 million) investment and expected to initial operations in 2014.

Declared by Minister of Forestry and Estate Crop No. 670/Kpts-II/1999, August 26, 1999.

Tesso Nilo

Tesso Nilo National Park (Taman Nasional Tesso Nilo) is located in the Riau province of Sumatera, Indonesia, close to Pakanbaru. It was declared a national park by the Indonesian Government in 2004. It cover an area of 38.576 hectares.  Tesso Nilo National Park houses some of the largest koherent lowland rainforest remaining on Sumatera. The center of Biodiversity Management has surveyed over 1.800 plots in tropical forests around the world. They found that no other plot has as many vascular plants as in Tesso Nilo. Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI) surveyed forests throughout Sumatera, and also found that Tesso Nilo housed by far the most species.

Tesso Nilo National Park contains Sumatera Tigers and Sumatera Elephants which are greatly endangered by the Palm Oil Industry encroaching on the forested areas. It also have Macaque Monkeys, Barking Deer, Cobra Snakes and Crocodiles. There also an isolated tribe of people "Orang Rimba" who live within the park. The WWF (World Wildlife Fund) estimate that the Riau province has lost around 65 % of it's forests over the last 25 years mainly for agriculture as well as for paper and lucrative Palm Oil plantations.

Currently, there is no tourist infrastructure to support visitors to the National Park for accommodation or trekking.

The local villages around Tesso Nilo National Park are patrolled by the Tesso Nilo Elephant Flying Squad, a team of 4 trained elephants, along with their rangers, who patrol the area to stop the wild elephants (Gajah liar) from encroaching on these villages looking for food. They use noise and light making device to try to scare the wild elephants away from the villages. If this doesn't work, the 4 training elephants are put into formation to confront the wild elephants. For the last year ther have been no deaths due to wild elephants, a common occurrence in past years.

The Tesso Nilo Elephant Flying Squad do random on Tuesdays and Saturdays though they are on call 24 hours a day.

The park suffers heavy encroachment from illegal loggers and illegal settlers who clear the park for crops and palm oil plantations, as well as village sites. Alreadi 28.600 hectares, or about a third of the park, has been deforested. Even when the park was being established, wood was delivered illegally to Indah Kiat paper mill. The paper industry firm that owns the paper mill received millions of US$ from European credit agencies, including the German Hermes.

In November 2009, WWF announced that the park had been finally been expanded by 44.492 hectares, but encroachment still remains a serious problem. During drought periods, the forest is susceptible to wildfires.

In the October 2006 fires, 1 km2 of the park was burnt. According to 2009 WWF survey, the population of Sumatran Elephants had reached 200 in the park, and around 350 elephans in Riau province.

The Belgian government committed to provide 200.000 euros in assistance for the construction of a Sumatran Elephant Conservation Centre in the Tesso Nilo National park, with the first quarter to be disbursed in 2011. The project will fund the relocation of dozens of tame elephants from Minas in Siak district to Tesso Nilo. The relocation was justified by the loss of habitat in Minas due to oil palm plantations and oil mining.

In 2012, the elephant population in the park is estimated 120 to 150 elephants through samples of elephant dropping. For three months, starting late of June, Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) of elephants's faeces are being conducted to get the actual number of elephants.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 255/Kpts-II/2004. July 19, 2004.


Siberut National Park comprises 190,500.00 hectares of Siberut in the Mentawai Island of West Sumatera, Indonesia. The whole island including the national park is part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.

Siberut is the largest island of four islands in the Mentawai, which lies off the coast of west Sumatera. Siberut island lies south of the equator between the coordinates 98036' - 99003' East longitude and 1005' - 1045' South latitude. The distance between the island of Siberut and Sumatera island about 155 km acros the Mentawai Strait. Altitude 0 - 500 m above sea level, rainfall on average 2,900 - 3,700 mm/year.

Siberut is divided into five district : The North Siberut (Muara Sikabaluan), South Siberut (Muara Siberut), West Siberut (Simalegi), South-west of Siberut (Tailelu), Middle Siberut (Saibu Samukop).

The forest area of the park is still relatively natural, with abundant large trees with an average height or 60 metres. Some of 60 % of the forest area is covered by Dipterocarpaceae primary forest, mixed primary forest, swamp forest, coastal forest and mangrove forest.

Siberut National Park has four primate species which are found nowhere else in the world. They are  Bilou/Mentawai Gibbon (Hylobates klossii), Bokoi/Pagai pig-tailed Macaque (Macaca pagensis), Joja/Mentawai leaf Monkey (Presbytis potenziani siberu), and Simakobu/Pig-tailed leaf Monkey (Simias concolor siberu). In addition, there are four endemic species of aquirrel, 17 species of mammals, and 130 species of bird, four of them are endemic.

Siberut National Park is characterized by a wet equatorial climate, with minimum and maximum temperature of 220 and 310 C. The dry season is from February to June and the raining season is from Juli to Januari. Siberut is hilly with wide variation in elevation.

Many few visitors walk through the inlands parts of the park, the main attraction so far has been the culture of the Mentawai people who live in and around the park. The Mentawai people are among the many tribes of Indonesia who have preserved their very traditional way of life.  Most of the people still adhere to animistic beliefs. Their social activities are centred around the 'Uma", a communal longhouse which may be occupied by 30 to 80 people.

The Mentawaians believe that all living objects, men, plants, and animal are supposed to have spirit. The only specialist in the communitiy is the medicine man 'Kerei', responsible for communication with the spirits and the souls. In case of misfortune or illness, he is called in to restore harmony within the group or in relation with the spirits in the environment. An elaborate 'Taboo' system based on religious beliefs with respect to the environment  is a dominant characteristic of traditional life on Siberut.  Visit and stay in a Mentawaian village, trek to the jungle, learn about sago processinng and bark cloth processingn, and do other activities that will heighten your interest in and fascination with the natural philosophy of the Mentawaian.

Some good coral reefs can be found along the east, south to southeast part of Siberut and the surrounding small islands. Along the coast, continuous, white sand beach, magnificent lagoon, enficing mangroves and coral sea gardens all promise an exciting coastal adventure. Dolphins (Stenela longirostris) can be seen along the east coast. Other sea mammals such as Digong (Dugong dugong) occasionally can be sighted near the sea grass by the mangrove along with three protected species of sea turtles.

Masilok Beach on the southern part of Siberut can be reached within an hour by motorized boat. The island's resort, dominated by coconut grows, a lagoon with beautiful white sand beach, promising a very relaxing environment. The west coast breaks from Siberut island, connected only by sea garden and mangrove that lie side by side, making it a unique experience for diving. Accomodation and fresh clean water are available. Another activity is oaring with traditional sampan through the mangrove, zigzaging past the enormous and thick prop roots. Enjoy the scenery and bring back pictures to show off to friends.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 407/Kpts-IV/1993. October 8, 1993.


Sembilang National Park is a natural coastal wet land area with various forest ecosystems of peat moss swamp, fresh water swamp, mangrove forests and mud flats. Administratively, it is part of Banyuasin District and has been a National Park since March 19, 2003, when it was separated from the Berbak National Park in Jambi. This area called Sembilang because it has many Sembilang fish (Plotosus canius).

The Banyuasin Peninsula, located on the east coast of South Sumatera, is a haven for water birds. It's muddy lands and sands border mangroves resulting in ideal habits for various types of invertebrates such as worms, mollusks, and crustaceans. The actual peninsula sticks out into the sea for 1,5 kilometers wich make this land an ideal stop for migrant birds from Asia and Europe, from October to December.

Sembilang National Park with a total area of 202.898,32 hectares, is also the largest mangrove forests in the Indo-Malayan region and one of the widest mangrove zone in the world, in some areas extending inland up to 35 km. The mangroves provide feeding, nesting and roosting areas for many globally threatened species of wildlife and are one of the most important stop over for migratory waders in the East Area Flyway (up to one million birds). The shallow mangrove zone in the area is highly productive, and more than 8.000 fishermen and their families find full time employment in the coastal fisheries.

A wide  variety of terrestrial and aquatic plants grow in this park, including Paku Gajah (Acrostichum aureum), Nipah (Nypa fruticans), Cemara Laut (Casuarina equisetifolia), Pandan (Pandanus tectorius), Waru Laut (Hibiscus tiliaceus), Nibung (Oncosperma tigillaria), Jelutung (Dyera costulata), Menggeris (Koompassia excelsa), Gelam Tikus (Syzygium inophylla), Rhizospora sp., Sonneratia alba, and Bruguiera gimnorrhiza.

The coastal and forest areas, particularly in Sembilang and Semenanjung Banyuasin, are a habitat for Sumatra Tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus), Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus), Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), Golden Cat (Catopuma temminckii), Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor equinus), Saltwater Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus), Sembilang Fish (Plotusus canius), Giant Freshwater Turtle (Chitra indica), Freshwater Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris), and various species of birds.

Huge numbers of migrant birds from Siberia can be seen in Sembilang, reaching a climax in October. The calling of thousands of birds flying in formation can even be heard over the thundering waves of the Bangka Strait.

The park is crisscrossed by more then 20 river that empty in Bangka Strait and is an ideal breeding place for birds.

Other bird species inhabiting this park including the Asian Dowitcher (Limnodromus semipalmatus), Spotted Greenshark (Pseudototanus guttifer), Eastern White Pelican (Pelecanus onocrotalus), Milky Stork (Mycteria cinerea), Lesser Adjutan Stork (Leptopilos javanicus), and White-winged Black Tern (Chlinonias leucoptera). The western part of the park border is the Berbak National Park in the province of Jambi.

You will find very exotic scenery in the far north of Betet Island, because some of its swamps are famous for its snake, crocodiles and rare orchids.

There are two routes to this area, from Sungsang, the capital city of Banyuasin II sub-district which will take you about two hours, or from Palembang, which will take you about four hours. To explore this area, you can take a speed boat or barge except when you wish to explore swampy areas. It will be more fun if you use a canoe. To visit the transit area of the migrant birds, you have to walk 500 meters to the sea through mud because the water level is only as high as an adult's chest.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 95/Kpts-II/2003, March 19, 2003

Kerinci Seblat

Kerinci Seblat National Park is the larges national park in Sumatera, Indonesia. It has a total area of 1.375.349,87 hectares, and spans four province : West Sumatera, Jambi, Bengkulu and South Sumatera. It is located between 100o31'18" - 102o44'01" East and 1o07'13" - 3o26'14" South.

The park area includes a large part of the Barisan Mountain range, which form the western alpine of Sumatera island and includes the highest park in Sumatera.  Mount Kerinci (3.805 m above sea level), one of more than five active volcanoes in the national park. This mainly montane park include hot springs, rivers with rapids, caves, scenic waterfalls, and the highest caldera lake in South-east Asia - Lake Gunung Tujuh, while the Great Sumatera Fault runs through the national park making the area of great interest to geologist.

The park is home to diversity of flora and fauna. Over 4.000 plant species have been identified to date in the park area, including the world's largest flower, Rafflesia arnoldi, and the plant with the largest unbranched inflorescense, the Titan arum (Amorphophallus titanium).

Kerinci Seblat National Park is most famous amongst bird-watcher as the best place to see most of the highland Sumatran endemic bird species including the Schneider's Pitta, Salvadore's Pheasant and Sumatran Cochoa, all presumed extinct for much of the 20th century before being rediscovered here. More than 375 species of bird have been recorded to date.

This is also the most important location in Sumatera for wild Sumatran Tiger and one of the 12 most important tiger reserves anywhere in the world although seeing wild tigers is unusual due both to the dense forest and the animals shy nature. Other fauna includes Elephants (best seen in national park forests in Bengkulu), Clouded Leopards, Tapirs, Sun Bears and at least seven species of primate.

Forest edge farmers continue to report occasional sightings of the mysterious 'Orang Pendek', a large, bipedai cryptozoological primate resembling an orangutan (which are not recorded in Kerinci Seblat).

The national park also houses the biggest and the tallest flowers in the world, the monstrous, flesh red flower of the parasite Raflesia arnoldi which ccan grow up to a meter in diameter, and is  the best searched for in the Bengkulu area of the park, ask for flowering information in Curup. In the southern part of Kerinci district hope to see the slightly smaller Rafflesia hasselti which is a vivid dark red in colour. The huge Amorphopalus titanum and Amorphopalus gigas are also present and can grow up to 4 metres in height. A remarkable flower at higher altitudes on Mount Kerinci and Mount Tujuh is the Javanese Edelweiss (Anaphalis javanica), which only grows on volcanoes. This shrub can reach more than two metres in height and is colored white-green because of its small hairs; the flowers are yellow with white. Numerous orchids are also found, most often flowering at the beginning of the rainy season in late September or October.

Rainfall is heaviest between October - December and from February - April while May - August is mainly dry but with some occasional rains, there are no major variations in seasonal temperature. Photographers may wish to avoid the period July - August as these dry months are often hazy. Becaus much of the park is above 700 m in altitude, evenings and nights tend to be cool while in the high mountains temperatures may occasionally drop as low as 5oC at night and so trekkers should be prepared for cool evenings.

The fauna include Sumatran Tiger and the park is recognized under the Global Tiger Initiative as one of the 12 most important protected areas in the world for tiger conservation. In 2012, Sumatran Tiger Preservation Programme ofiicial stated the park has about 166 Sumatran Tigers and spreads mainly at Merangin-Bungo in Jambi, Tapan-Solok Selatan in West Sumatera, Muko-muko in Bengkulu, and Curup Bengkulu-Lingau in South Sumatera. the tigers condition are predicted well, becaus of the vast park is enough space for tiger population, although the tigers number might have slightly changed due to poaching activities.

In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) added a second species of Muntjac Deer to the Sumatran list of fauna with the rediscovery of the Sumatran Muntjac, a deer not recorded since the late 1920s and now concluded as a new species and not sub species. The park also protect more than 370 bird species, including the Sumatran Ground-cuckoo rediscovered in the park in 2002.

The population of Sumatran Rhinoceros in the park was estimated to number around 500 in the 1980, but due to poaching the Kerinci Seblat population is no considered extinct.

Declared byMinister of Forestry and Estate Crops No.  901/Kpts-II/1999. October 14,1999 and added by Minister of Forestry No. 420/Kpts-II/2004. October 19, 2004.

Gunung Leuser

Gunung Leuser (Mount Leuser) National Park is a national park covering 7,927 sq km in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, straddling the border of North Sumatra and Aceh Provinces. The National Park named after 3,381 m height of Mount Leuser, protects a wide range of ecosystems. An Orangutan sanctuary of Bukit Lawang is located inside the park. Together with Bukit Barisan Selatan and Kerinci Seblat national parks it form a World Heritage Site, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra.

Gunung Leuser National Park is 150 km long, over 100 km wide and is mostly mountainous. 40 % of the park, which is mainly in the north, is steep, and over 1,500 m. 12 % of the park only, in the lower southern half, is below 600 meters but for 25 km runs down the coast. 11 peaks are over 2,700 m and the highest point is Gunung Leuser, which 3,466 m high. Temperature 21o- 28o C, rainfall 2,000 - 3,200 mm/year, at the geographical location 96o35' - 98o30' E, 2o50' - 4o10' S.

Gunung Leuser National Park is one of the two remaining habitats for Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo abelii). In 1971, Herman Rijksen established the Ketambe research station, a specially designated research area for the orangutan. Other mammals found in the park are the Sumatran Elephant, Sumatran Tiger, Sumatran Rhinocheros, Siamang, Mainland Serow, Sambar Deer, and Leopard Cat.

The Leuser ecosystem lists over 382 species of birds, 105 species of mammals, 103 species of reptiles and 35 species of amphibians. The flora contains some 3,500 plants species, and in one hectare you can find 130 different tree species.

It is believed to contain around 300 elephants, 60 tigers and 40 rhinos, but the chances of seeing one of these is slim. There are also around 5,000 orangutan as well as gibbons, the white breasted Thomas leaf monkey, the long and pig tailed macaques, the white handed gibbons, and the cuddly black siamang. Also living in the park are clouded leopards, marbled cat, crocodile and sun bears and over 300 birds species including the rhinoceros hornbill and the helmeted hornbill. The Rafflesia Arnoldi, largest flower in the world, can also be found within the park.

Gunung Leuser National Park represent several ecosystem types, from coastal forest ecosystem through tropical lowland forest ecosystem to montane forest ecosystem. Most of the park area is covered with thick Dipterocarpaceae forest with rivers and waterfalls flowing through it. There are some endangered and peculiar plants, namely Daun Payung Raksasa (Johannesteijsmannia altifrons), Rafflesia Flowers (Rafflesia atjehensis and R. micropilora), and Rhizanthes zippelnii, the biggest flower, with a diameter of 1.5 meters. In addition, there is the one plant unique to the area : The Ara, a strangling plant.

Endangered and protected animal species which inhabit the park include Orangutan (Pongo abelii), Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus syndactylus), Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus), Serow (Capricornis sumatraensis), Great Hornbill (Buceros bicornis), Sambar Deer (Cervus unicolor) and Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis sumatrana).

Gunung Leuser National Park has been declared a Biosphere Reserve. Under a cooperation program between Indonesia and Malaysia, the park is also designated as a 'Sister Park' to the Taman Negara in Malaysia.

Agriculture is a major source of income for the local communities around Leuser. Large rubber and oil palm plantations in northern Sumatra play a major role in the national economy. Almost all remaining lowland forest has been given out officially for oil palm plantation. Yield decline has been recorded, however, in several Leuser regencies. This decline can be ascribed mainly to a deterioration of nutriens in the soil, along with soil erosion, drought and floods, and an increase in weeds. Clearly, these causes of decline are linked to the deforestation of Leuser. For example, the logging of water catchment in Leuser is found to be responsible fo taking 94 % of failed irrigation areas out of production.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 276/Kpts-VI/1997. May 23, 1997.

Bukit Tigapuluh

Bukit Tigapuluh National Park (also called bukit Tiga Pulah and Bukit Tigapulah) or The Thirty Hills, is covered 144.223 hectares, located in Eastern Sumatera, Indonesia, consisting primarily of tropical lowland forest, largely in Riau Province, with a smaller part of 30.000 hectares in Jambi Province. It is famous as one of the last refuges of endangered species such as the Sumatran Orangutan, Sumatran Tiger, Sumatran Elephant, Sumatran Rhinoceros, and Asian Tapir, as well as many endangered bird species. It form part of the Tesso Nilo Complex biodiversity hotspot. The park is inhabited by the indigenous peoples of the "Orang Rimba" and "Talang Mamak" tribes.

Bukit Tigapuluh National Park is located at geographical between 102o13' - 102o45' East and 0o40' - 1o30' South, lying between 60 to 734 m above sea level, with the rainfall average 1.600 mm/annual, temperature 28o - 37o  C.

The park itself has been under consistent threat from illegal loging and palm oil plantation, with two thirds of the park logged.

Bukit Tigapuluh National Park has lowland tropical rain forest ecosystem. Its forest is the transition between mangrove forest and hilly forest. Having unique ecosystem makes the park different from others as it lies in sleep hills in the middle of eastern part of Sumatera's low land at the border of Jambi and Riau. In Jambi, the park occupies two regencies, West Tanjung Jabo (10.000 hectares) and Tebo (23.000 hectares).

Ecosystem tipes within the park include lowland and highland forests, with flora such as Gutta percha, Shorea, Alstonia scholaris, Dyera costulata, Koompassia excelsa, Rafflesia hasseltii, Daemonorops draco and various kinds of Rattan.

According to a 1994 survey Bukit Tigapuluh National Park has 59 species of mammal, 6 species of primate, 198 species of bird, 18 species of bat, and various species of butterfly.  Mammals include Sumatran Orangutan, Sumatran Tiger, Sumatran Elephant, Sumatran Rhinoceros, Asian Tapir, Sun Bear, Siamang, Crab-eating Macaque, Sumatran Surii, Sunda Loris, Clouded Leopard, Leopard Cat,  Marbled Cat, Malayan Civet, Indian Muntjac, Sumatran Serow, and Java Mouse-deer.

Bird species include : Great Argus, Little Green-pigeon, White-rumped Shama, White-bellied Woodpecker, Crested Serpent-eagle, Hill Myna, Helmeted Hornbill, Wrinkled Hornbill, White-winged Wood Duck, Storm's Stork, Garnet Pitta, and Grey-breasted Babbler.

The forests and its surrounding buffer area also provide homes for 'Orang Rimba (Kubu)' and 'Talang Mamak' forest dweling tribal communities all of whom have adapted to livinng in the environment in a sustainable way that has little impact on the ecosystem.

Orang Rimba, the 'People of the Forest' are an indigenous people, numbering 2.500, in Jambi Province. Approximately 364 live in the forests on Bukit Tigapuluh. The Orang Rimba have developed a traditional system of forest resources management, based on enrichment and selective enhancement of many tree and plant species. They generally collect non-wood forest product, hunt, and practice swidden cultivation. The fact that the Orang Rimba base their livelihood on the collection of forest products makes this forest of great importance to them.

Talang Mamak, known as a hinterland tribe, the Talang Mamak number only about 6.000 and depend on the natural resources found in the park in Riau's Indragiri Hulu regency

The Medicinal Biota Expedition found the Talang Mamak tribe use 100 and the Kubu tribe use 101 or medicinal plants and fungi tu cure over 50 diseases. Leaves are the most usable part of medical plants after roots, bark and sap. They have long known the plants and fungi as effective cures for common diseases such as rheumatism, dysentery, hepatitis, respiratory,ailments, malaria, goiter, skin rashes, coughs and diabetes. Some plants are also considered natural contraceptives. Usually the part of the plant are boiled then the water drunk as a herbal extract.

unfortunately, much of this area, which borders directly on the Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, is now designated for conversion to plantation, and the remainder is being degraded at a rapid rate, not merely by licensed logging companies but also by numerous illegal loggers. This all puts pressure on their traditional way of life.  Resettlement of poor people from Java and other provinces in Sumatera is threatening the survival of the native communities.  According to recent studies within four years 'newconers' controlled 30 % of the indigeous people's 3.275 hectares in Talang Lakat village.  The transmigrants activities are environmentally destructive; they exploit the forest and have taught the Talang Mamak to use chain saws to fell trees.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 6407/Kpts-II/2002. June `12, 2002.