Manupeu - Tanah Daru

Manupeu - Tanah Daru National Park is located in Sumba Island, Indonesia, with a region of 87.984,09 hectares, with a stretch of steep topography of the cliffs bordering the seashore and has a spring forest ecosystem types lowlands.

Manupeu - Tanah Daru National Park covers some of the last remaining lowland monsoon forest in Sumba. Most of the forest areas of this park are on steep slopes which rise from sea level up to a heigh of 600 m above.

Lies at the geographical location between 119029' - 119053' East and 9035' - 9053', temperature 250 - 320 C, rainfall on average 2.000 mm/year. This park has a high species diversity, with some 118 species of plant including Suren (Toona sureni), Taduk (Sterculia foetida), Kesambi (Schleichera oleosa), Pulai (Alstonia scholaris), Tamarin (Tamarindus indica), Kemiri (Aleurites moluccana), Jambu hutan (Syzygium sp.), Cemara Gunung (Casuarina sp.), and Lantana (Lantana camara).

There are about 87 species of bird, including seven endemic species, like the Yellow-crested Cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata), Sumba Hornbill (Rhyticeros everetti), Sumba Green Pigeon (Treron teysmannii), Sumba Flycatcher (Ficedula harterti), Sumba Cicada bird (Coracina dohertyi), and Apricot-breasted Sunbird (Nectarinia buettikoferi). The Sumba Hornbill and the Yellow-crested Cockatoo are the rarest and are threathened almost to the point of extinction.

'Julang Sumba' (Rhyticeros everetti) and 'Kakatua Cempaka' (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata) is the most rare birds and endangered species, especially on the island of Sumba.

Manupeu - Tanah Daru National Park has  57 species of butterflies including seven endemic to the island of Sumba is Papilio neumoegenii, Idespsis oberthurii, Delias fasciata, Junonia adulatrix, Athyma karita, Sumalia chilo, and Elimnia amoena.

Point of tourism in Manupeu - Tanah Daru National Park among others Waikabubak Land, adjacent to Manupeu - Tanah Daru National Park found many ancient tombs carved. Ancient tombs is a symbol of social status and public health (Kadung Tana, Watu Karagata, and Bulu Peka Mila).

Pasola, is the attraction of the ritual is very interesting and exciting, because it seems some people mount a horse who decorated the colorful, attack each other to knock each other with wooden spears.  Attractions was held in February in Lamboya and Kodi, March in Gaura and Wanukaka.

Location was interesting to visit : Matayangu and Lapopu. The waterfall located in the village Waimanu and Katikutana.

How to reach the park  : Kupang - Waingapu, with planes about an hour, then from Waingapu - Lawa - Waikabubak by road four-wheel drive for about two hours, which continued into the national park location (Langgaliru Village, Countryside Vilage Katiku Loku and Watumbelar).

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 576/Kpts-II/1998. August 3, 1998.

Laiwangi Wanggameti

Laiwangi  Wanggameti National Park is geographically consist of hills, valleys, and wavy region, located in East Sumba, East Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia, which has an area of 47.014 hectares, has rainforest classification and Elfin Forest which has a relative high value species diversity mainly located at an altitude 0f 800 meters above sea level.

Laiwangi Wanggameti National Park have a flat rate up to extreme steepness. In general, the tipe of ecosystem in the Laiwangi Wanggameti include mangrove forest, beach forest, tropycal dry forest and season with lowland rain forest to mountain.  Laiwangi Wanggameti National Park are water catchment areas, include two river basins of watershed and sub watershed 'Kambaniru Nggogi'

East Sumba has 7 Watershed, namely Kambaniru 111.000 acres, Kaliongga 55.000 acres, Melolo 45.000 acres, Kadahang 40.000 acres, Nggogi 26.000 acres, Tidas 33.000 acres and Watumbaka 23.000 acres.

Laiwangi Wanggameti National Park has some types of plants such as Pulai (Alstonia scholaris), Guava Forests (Syzygium sp.), Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Suren (Toona sureni), Banyan (Ficus sp.), Nuts (Canarium oleosum), Honggi (Myristica littoralis), Taduk (Sterculia foetida), Kesambi (Schleichera oleosa), and Hangkang (Palaquium obovatum).

Laiwangi Wanggameti National Park is the habitat of some wildlife such as Long-tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis fascicularis), Wild Boar (Sus sp.) Monitor Lizard (Varanus salvator), Timor Python (Python timorensis), and Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus). In addition, a major population of birds Walik Rawamanu (Ptilinopus dohertyl), Sumba Pigeon (Treron teysmannii), and various other bird species such as Gemak Sumba (Tumix everettii), Cockatoos Cempaka (Cacatua sulphurea citrinocristata), Parrots (Lorius domicella), Sweep Sumba (Ficedula harterti), Orioles-sungu Sumba (Coracina doherty), and Honey Sumba (Nectarinia buettikoferi).

Recorded as many as 43 butterfly species includingn three endemic species in Nusa Tenggara is a Butterfly Hallpron (Troides haliphron NAIAS), Elimnias amoena, Sumalia chilo, Ideopsis oberthurii, and Athyma karita.

Laiwangi Wanggamet was just recently designated as a national park, so the facility for visitors is still very limited. Homestay accomodation is available in the form provided and managed by local communities.

Natural attraction in the area Laiwangi Wanggameti that there are quite a lot with a beautiful panorama of waterfals including Laputi waterfalls, Kanabuai waterfalls, Waikanabu waterfalls, Kahalatua waterfalls. Lake Laputi where there is the sacred eels (local people call it 'Apu').

Around the Laiwangi Wanggameti National Park can be found many ancient tombs carved with a motif such as horses, buffalo, men and women. It's a symbol of ancient tombs and social status of the family left behind.

In the daily life, people of Sumba is divided into several stratas which are th Aristocratic, Kabihu, and Ata (ordinary people). The activities of the non-ordinary blend in society in the community of East Sumba to a bound called 'kabihu' which illustrate the closeness of the bond order custom, especially in the sacred events like funeral, marriage and mutual cooperation within kin relatives of the family.

The relationship between the 'patrician' and 'ata' built with family and kinship, even 'serung' as the relationship between child and father. Traditional patterna such as this need conserved as one of East Sumba Ethnic pride.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 576/Kpts-II/1998. August 13,1998.


The Komodo National Park is a national park in Indonesia located within the Lesser Sunda Island in the border region between the provinces of East Nusa Tenggara and West Nusa Tenggara. The park includes the three larger island Komodo, Padar and Rincah, and 26 smaller ones, with a total area of 173.700 hectares (603 sq km of it land). The national park was founded in 1980 in order to protect the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis), the world's largest lizard. Later it was dedicated to protecting other species, including marine species. In 1991 the national park was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The park comprises a coastal section of western Flores, the three larger islands of Komodo, Padar, and Rinca, 26 smaller islands and the surrounding waters of the Sape Straights. The islands of the national park are of volcanic origin. The terrain is generally rugged, characterized by rounded hills, with altitudes up to 735 m asl. The climate is one of the driest of Indonesia, with annual rainfall between 800 mm and 1000 mm.  Temperature generally range from 17oC to 34oC. Located at the geographic location is 8o24' - 8o50' S, 119o21' - 119o49' E.

About 4,000  people live within the park. Scuba diving is popular because of the park's high marine biodiversity. The development of, largely marine based, ecotourism is the main strategy to make the park self-financing and generate sufficient revenue through entrance fees and tourism licences to cover operational and managerial costs. To this end, a joint venture between TNC and a tourism operator were granted a tourism concession, that also entails extensive park management rights. This concession has generated an ongoing controversy. The joint venture has been accused of making decision behind closed doors, and many people in and around Komodo claim that they haven't been consulted regarding decision that ultimately affect their lives.

The majority of the people in and around the park are fishermen originally form Bima (Sumbawa), Manggarai, South Flores, and South Sulawesi. Those from South Sulawesi are from the Suku  Bajau or Bugis ethnic groups. The Suku Bajau were originally nomadic and moved from location to location in the region of Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku, to make their livelihoods. Descendents of the original people of Komodo, the Ata Modo, still live in Komodo, but there are no pure blood people left and their culture and language is slowly being integrated with the recent migrants.

These volcanic islands are inhabited by a population of around 5,700 giant lizards, whose appearance and aggressive  behaviour have led to them being called 'Komodo dragons'. They exist nowhere else in the world and are of great interest to scientist studying the theory of evolution. The rugged hillsides of dry savanna and pockets of thorny green vegetation contrast starkly with the brilliant white sandy beaches and the blue waters surging over coral.

The park is best known for the Komodo monitor, the world's largest living lizard. The population is distributed across the island of Komodo, Rinca, and Gili Motong, and in certain coastal regions of western and northern Flores. Favoured habitat is tropical deciduous forest and, to a lesser extent, open savanna . 

The mammalian fauna is characteristic of the Wallacean zoogeographical zone, with terrestrial species recorded including the endemic rat. Other mammal include primates such as crap-eating macaque. Introduced species, such as Rusa Deer and Wild Boar, as well as feral domestic animal including Horses and Water Bufallo, form important prey species for the Komodo Monitor. Some 72 species of bird have noisy friar bird and common scrubhen.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 306/Kpts-II/1992, February 29, 1992.


Kelimutu National Park is located on the island of Flores, Indonesia, its covers an area of 5.356,50 hectares at the geographical location 121o44' - 121o51' East and 8o43' - 8o48 South. Rainfall 1.615 - 3.363 mm/annual, temperature 25o - 31o C. It consists of a region with hills and mountain with Mount Kelibara (1.731 m above sea level) as its highest peak. Mount Kelimutu, which has the three coloured lake, is also located in this national park. This natural attraction is a destination for tourist.

The topography of Kelimutu National Park varies from gently rolling hills to more mountainous relief.

Some of the plants that grow in the park area are Kayu Mata (Albizia montana), Kebu (Homalanthus giganteus), Tokotaka (Putranjiva roxburghii), Uwi Rora (Ardisia humilis), Longgo Baja (Drypetes subcubica), Toko Keo (Cyrtandra sp.), Kayu Deo (Trema cannabina), Kayu Bu (Casuarina equisetifolia), Kelo (Ficus villosa), and Ampupu (Eucalyptus urophylla).

The park provides habitat for at least 19 restricted-range bird species including the near threatened Flores-green Pigeon (Treron floris), Wallace's Scop Owl (Otus silvicola), Chestnut-backed Jungle Flycatcher (Rhinomyias oscillans), Bare-throated Whistler (Pachycephala nudigula), Little Minivet (Pericrocotus lansbergei), Russet-capped  Tesia (Tesia everetti), Thick-billed White-eye (Heleia crassirostris), Crested White-eye (Lophozosterops dohertyi), Golden-rumped Flowerpecker (Dicaeum annae), Flores Monarch (Monarcha sacerdotum), Flame-breasted Sunbird (Nectarinia solaris), and Flores Hawk-eagle (Spizaetus floris).

The national park also records other species that are easily spotted such as Perkici Rainbow (Trichoglossus haematodus weben), Lodo (Ducula rosaceae), Rufous-chested Flycatcher (Ficedula Dumetoria), Ordinary Glasses (Zosterop palpebrosa unica), and many other blending into the harmony of birds chirping.

The four endemic mammals include two montane rodents : Bunomys naso and Rattus hainaldi.

Not only does it have bigh biodiversity, this park is also the location of a unique natural phenomenom-three different-coloured lakes at the peak of Mount Kelimutu (1.690 m above sea level) . The first lake is named Tiwu Ata Mbupu (lake of people spirits), the second is named Tiwu Nuwa Muri Koo Fai (lake of young people spirits),  and the third is Tiwu Ata Polo (lake of fortune teller spirits).

The first and the second lakes are situated close together, while the third lake is abou 1,5 km to the west. The colour of the water in each lake is different and the colours change from time to time, particularly that of Tiwu Nuwa Koo Fai lake : twenty years ago, its water changed colour twelve times. Thought to be caused by the volcanic activity of Kelimutu, it has also been suggesten that the changes in colour are due to refraction of the sun's rays, microbiota in the water, dissolution of chemical substances, and the reflection of the colour of the lake walls and bottom.

This is determined by the gases seeping out of the volcano and into the water, with the colour altered by the amount of oxygen which can be carried within the water molecules in each lake. Much like veins and arteries in your body, the colouring is determined by the abundance of oxygen within the individual lakes.

For example, when the lake waters lack oxygen, they look green or blue (just like de-oxygenated blood seen in your veins), and when they are rich oxygen, they are deep red or black.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 679/Kpts-II/1997. October 10,1997.


Gunung Rinjani National Park is located on the island of Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, in the north Lombok Regency. The park consists of mountainous areas Mount Rinjani (Gunung Rinjani), which is the second highest mountain of Indonesia (3.726 m asl), is located in this national park, giving this park its name.

The Park covers an area of 41.330 ha on the northern part of Lombok and locates the three adminstrative district of West, East and Central Lombok.. The area covers 12.357,67 ha in the west, 22.152,88 ha in the east and 6.819,45 ha in central Lombok. 

Rinjani dominates the National Park of Lombok, an island east of Bali on the Indonesian archipelago.  At 3.726 m asl it is the second highest volcano in Indonesia, part of the infamous ring of the fire that encircles the basin of the Pacific. Within the crater is the spectacular 'Segara Anak' lake and the still active volcano Gunung Baru (2.363 m asl).

It is surounded by further 66,000 ha of Protection Forest also covers the three administrative districts. The park ecosystem is in the transitional zone between Asia and Australia (Walaceae Zone). Average rainfall is about 2,000 mm annually (on average), Temperature 23oC - 30oC, at the geographical location is 116o18' - 116o32' East and 8o18' -  8o33' South.

Gunung Rinjani is rich in variety of flora and fauna and vegetation types. There are 114 families and more than 500 several of floras found and about 50 species of plant that can be used for traditional medicine. While fauna in Gunung Rinjani is about 12 mammals and reptiles species, more than 50 birds species and more 50 several of butterflies which some are protected and has limited area of spread. On the south western side of mountain is the most eastern extent of primary rainforest in Nusa Tenggara. This gives way to monsoon forest and drier climate in the east, and savannah in the north east. Notable flora includes the everlasting Edelweiss Flower (Anaphalis viscida), Tiger Orchid (Vanda sp.), Alang-alang Grass (Imperata cylindrical), Cemara Trees (Casuarina trifolia and Casuarina ocidentale).

Some of endangered plants are protected in this national park, such as Pterospermum javanicum , Swietenia macrophylla, Ficus superba, Toona sureni, Vanda sp., Usnea sp., and Anaphalis sp. and there are also several endangered fauna protected in this national park, including Rusa Deer, Indian Muntjac, Sunda Porcupine, Surili Monkeys, Helmeted  Friarbird, several Cockatoos and Scaly-crowned Honeyeater.

Gunung Rinjani, one of the 50 National Parks through out Indonesia and 21 become National Parks model included Gunung Rinjani National Park, it was established in 1997. It is values and protected for its spiritual as well natural values, and is worshipped by thousands of Balinese as well as Sasak pilgrims. Hot springs near the crater lake are sought after for their healing  powers.

Over 38 villages spread out in 12 sub-districts surround Rinjani and there are many route up to the mountain, but the main acces is from Sembalun Lawang to the east. The challenging three day Rinjani Trek route from Senaru to crater rim (Plawangan), down to the stunning crater lake then on to Sembalun Lawang, is considered one of the best treks in South East Asia. Those heading for the summit usually prefer to start in Sembalun Lawang.

A model of ecotourism in Indonesia, the community-based activities are focused on the Rinjani Trek Centre in Senaru, the most popular starting point to the though trek. Developed with New Zealand Government assistant since 1999, the Rinjani Trek centre embodies under the one roof (satu atap) the unique partnership of the National Park, Tourism industry and local communities that has been forgot to manage and protect the Rinjani Mountain environment.

Volcanic cone which has formed in the center, Rinjani last erupted in 1994, and evidence of this can be seen in the fresh lava and yellow sulfur around the inner cone. Central Lombok, to the south of Rinjani, is similar to Bali with rich alluvial plains and fields irrigated by water flowing from the mountain. In the far south and east it is drier, with the scrubby, barren hills. This area gets little rain and often has droughts which can last for months. In recent years, several dams have been built, so the abundant rain fall of the wet season can be retained for irrigation throughout the year.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 280/Kpts-VI/1997, June 3, 1997.

Bali Barat

Bali Barat National Park (West Bali National Park) is located on the nort western side of Bali, Indonesia. The park covers around 19.002,89 hectares, of which are 15.000 hectares land and remainder is sea. This is approximately 5 % of Bali's total land area. To the north, it includes 1 km long beach, reef and islets. A seaport at Gilimanuk is west of the park, and the village of Goris is to the east. The national park can be reached by roads from Gilimanuk and Singaraja, or by using ferries from Ketapang, East Java.

There are several habits in the national park, savanna, rainforest, monsoon forest, mangrove swamp and coral reef are home to a range of small animals, prolific marine life and approximately 160 species of bird, including the efusive and endangered Bali starling. Bali's one true endemic creature. This was also once the province of Bali Tiger, but the last one was shot here in the 1930s.

Just a fraction of the national park is open to the public and its biggest attraction by far is Pulau Menjangan (Deer Island), whose spectacular coral reefs draw snorkellers and divers from all over Bali. On dry land, encroachment and illegal tree felling has degraded some of the forest and the handful of rarely-trekked trails are only worth it for the reasonably rewarding bird-watching, though you can also take a boat trip through the shoreline mangroves, Grey Macaques live in the roadside forest and can often be seen waiting for titbits from passing drivers.

Bali Barat National Park located at the geographical position between 114o25' - 114o34' East and 8o05' - 8o 5' South, temperature on average 33o C, rainfall 972 - 1550 mm/year.

This Park has 175 species of plant, 14 of which are endangered species like Bayur (Pterospermum javanicum), Ketangi (Lagerstroemia speciosa), Burahol (Stelechocarpus burahol), Cendana or Sandalwood (Santalum album), and Sonokeling (Dalbergia latifolia).

As well as the Bali Starling (Leucopsar rothcshildi), an endangered and endemic species, the park also has other birds such as the Black-winged Starling (Sturnus melanopterus), Yellow-vented Bulbul (Pycnonotus goiavier), and Black-headed Ibis (Threskiornis melanocephalus).

Bali Starling, the mascot of the Park, loves a clean habitat and has a short flying range. Being easy to catch, this species need special care and protection to safeguard it decreasing population.

Among the animal to be found here are Banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus), Barking Deer (Muntiacus muntjak nainggolani), Marbled Cat (Pardofelis marmorata), Pangolin (Manis javanica), South-east Asia Porcupine (Hystrix brachyura brachyura), and Lesser-malay Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus javanicus).

The sea biota inhabiting the waters around Menjangan Island and Tanjung Gela comprise some 45 species of coral including Halimedia macroloba, Chromis spp., Balistes spp., Zebrasoma spp. and Ypsiscarus ovifrons.

Thirty two species of fish including Pinnate Batfish (Platax pinnatus), Rabbitfish (Siganus sp.),  and Barracuda (Sphyraena sp.) and nine species of sea mollusc such as the Southern Giant Clam (Tridacna derasa), Trumpet Triton (Charonia tritonis), and Large Claw Mussel (Tridacna gigas).

The Tegal Blunder Trail is most popular with birdwatchers, and it is an easy two hour walk. The ranger checkpoint is at the village of Slumber Klampok, about 20 minutes west of Cekik. From the same checkpoint you can take the more strenuous Gunung Klatakan Trail to the south east. This is tougher walking for about five hours, but it takes you through some memorable rainforest. There are other trails and opportunities for interesting hikes, but these are the two most popular and the easiest. Ask guides about other opportunities at the time, particularly those involving hiking deeper into the Prapat Agung Peninsula.

Declare by Minister of Forestry No. 493/Kpts-II/1995. September 15, 1995.