Halimun - Salak

Gunung Halimun - Salak National Park represent the ecosystem types of lowland rain forest, sub montane forest. Most of the forest areas of this Park are situated in mountainous terrain with several rivers and waterfalls. The area protects the hydrological function of the regencies of Bogor, Lebak and Sukabumi.

Located in West Java, Gunung Halimun - Salak, Sundanese for 'The Mountains of the Mist', contains some of Indonesia's largest remaining lowland and montane forest. The area has been a nature reserve since the 1930's; therefore in 1992 the Government changed it's status to a National Park. The Park has abundant untouched wildlife and stunning scenery. Each year visitors come to Gunung Halimun - Salak National Park to explore mountainous terrain, canyons, rivers and waterfalls, natural hot spring, tropical forest and tea plantations in the middle of the park.

With an approximately 40,000 hectares, this park is a nirvana for the endemic (native) wildlite of West Java. More than 200 species of endemic, rare of common birds including the endangered Javan Hawk Eagle, as well as several species of primates, including Javan Gibbon, Javan Leaf Monkey, and Black Leaf Monkey reside within the park.

Halimun - Salak National Park located on geographical location between 106o21' - 106o38' East and 6o37' - 6o51' South, temperature 30oC on average, rainfall 4.000 - 6.000 mm/year, altitude 500 - 1,929 m above sea levell.

Among the plants that dominate the forest areas of the park are Rasamala (Altingia excelsa), Jamuju (Dacrycarpus imbricatus), and Puspa (Schima wallichii). About 75 orchid species grow in the park and several of them are categorized as endangered species, including Bulbophylum binnendykii, Bulbophyllum angustifolium, Cymbidium ensifolium and Dendrobium macrophyllum.

This park forms a habitat for several endangered animal like Lesser Malay Mouse Deer (Tragulus javanicus javanicus), Javan Gibbon (Hylobates moloch), Javan Leaf Monkey (Presbytis comata comata), Ebony Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus auratus), Barking Deer (Munciacus muntjak), Panther (Panthera pardus) and Asian Wild Dog (Cuon alpinus javanicus).

There are about 204 species of birds, of which 90 are permanent and 35 are endemic to Java, such as the Javan Hawk Eagle (Spizaetus bartelsi). Two species of bird, the spotted crocias (Crocias albonotatus) and the Red Fronted Laughing Thrush (Garrulax rufifrons), are threatened with extinction. The Javan Hawk Eagle, which is identical to Indonesia's National Symbol, the Garuda, can be quite easily spotted in the Park. With its wet climate, this park is the source for several year round river, and it boasts eight beautiful waterfalls which have great potential as tourist or recreation attractions.

Inside and around Gunung Halimun - Salak National Park also live ethnic Sundanese who are integrated into the customs of societies called 'Kesatuan Masyarakat Adat Kasepuhan Banten Kidul'. They live a life with an agricultural slash and burn pattern known as 'semi permanent'. This way of life comes from their ancestral beliefs called 'tatali paranti karuhun' (ancestor's manner). This belief influences all aspects of the Kasepuhan community. The cyclical pattern is called semi permanent because it is not defined pursuant of the crop season, but rather emphasizes at rule 'wahyu' (divine inspiration) from their ancestors.

The philosophy of the ancestor's is continually cyclical. The cosmovision or the 'Kasepuhan' believe that in the universe physical elements and social systems are intimately connected. The universe will continue to exist as long as its laws of regularity and equilibrium, controlled by its cosmic center can maintain all its elements in balance. They believe that every violation of the ancestor's law will cause disaster, not only to those who violate it, but also to the whole community. That believe becomes the basis for their perception of 'Hutan Titipan'

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 285/Kpts-II/1992, February 26, 1992.