Taka Bonerate

Taka Bonerate National Park is a marine park which include the Takabonerate atoll islands, located in the Flores Sea, South of Sulawesi island, Indonesia, which consist of the atoll islands and surrounding marine area was granted national park protection status in 1992.

Taka Bonerate National Park is one of the most beautiful marine parks in Indonesia. Laying south-west of Selayar Island, the park has the third largest atoll in the world, after Kwajifen in the Marshall Islands and Suvadiva in Maldives.

Taka Bonerate National Park covering an area of 530.765 hectares,  the geographical location between 120o54' - 121o25' East and 6o16' - 7o06' South, water temperature 28o - 32o C, salinity 34 - 35 %, weather clearness 80 - 100 %, drifted oxygen 4,5 - 6,0 ppm, low-tide 1 - 1,5 m, wind speed 33 - 50 cm/second, rainy season Januari to March, dry season July to September.

The total area of the atoll is about 220.000 hectares , with coral reefs spreading over 500 km2, and comprises of more than 20 small island. Taka Bonerate used to be known as Tiger island and Gold reef. The park as paradise for dive lovers as the atoll which is rich in coral reef and seagrass ecosystem offering some very good wall diving. The atoll rises sharply about 2.000 m below the surface of water and was formed from a collapse of a huge volcano.

 The atoll is major ecological importance, with rich marine and bird life. The national park is considered to contain some of the world's highest marine biodiversity. According to the Indonesian Department of Forestry, the atoll has 261 species of coral, 295 species of coral fish, 244 species of mollusk and other species such as Hawks-bill Turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata), Pacific Ridley Turtle (Lepidochelys olivaceae), and Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas), and Sea Turtle (Dermochelys coriacea).

The topography of the park is very unique, The atoll consist of a chain of islands of dry coral and a large flat sunken reef, forming a large number of islands. The coral islands are interspersed by narrow, deep, sheer-walled straits. On the coral flats there are small, deep pools surrounded by coral reefs. At low tide, dry land is clearly visible, dotted by water flooding into the small pools.

The plant species inhabiting the coastal are dominated by Coconut tree (Cocos nucifera), Pandan Laut (Pandanus sp.), Cemara Laut (Casuarina equisetifolia), and Ketapang (Terminalia catappa).

Among the more than 261  identified species of coral are Pacillopora eydouxi, Montipora danae, Acropora palifera, Porites cylindrica, Pavona clavus, Fungia consinna, etc. Most of the corals have formed either atolls (barrier reefs) or fringing reefs. They are all beautiful and in relatively pristine condition.

There are about 295 species of coral fish and several species of fish which are of high economic value for consumption like Grouper (Epinephelus spp.),  Skipjack (Katsuwonus spp.), Napoleon Wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus), and Surgeonfish (Acanthurus sp.)

Among the 244 species of mollusc are the Top Shell (Trochus niloticus), Horned Helmet (Cassis cornuta), Trumpet Triton (Charonia tritonis), Green Shell (Turbo marmoratus),  Fluted Giant Clam (Tridacna squamosa), and Pearly-chambered Nautili (Nautilus pompillius).

The native of the atoll are the Bonerate people. They traditionally trade for fishery sea products from the Bajau in exchange for freshwater and other land supply. The Bonerate are predominantly Moslem, although with strong elements of traditional beliefs.

They speak the Bonerate languages, a celebic language and like most languages of Indonesia part of the greater Austronesian languages. Their closest linguistic relations is with people in the neighbourinng Buton, Wakatobi, and Muna island in South-east Sulawesi. Most also speak Indonesian.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 92/Kpts-II/2001. February 26, 2001.

Rawa Aopa Watumohai

Rawa Aopa National Park is a national park on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi, on Kendari, the province of South East Sulawesi. With an area of 105.194 hectares, geographically located between 121o4' - 122o44' east longitude and 4o22' - 4o39' latitude. Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park is a representative type of low mountain rain forest ecosystem, mangroves, coastal forests, savannas, and freshwater swamp forests in Sulawesi. Savannah vegetation in this park has distinctive features and unique, because it is a combination of grassy plains with plants agel, palm leaves and bamboo thorns, bushes and plants are also along the river that flow in these savannahs. Plant diversity in this region is very prominent of carrying at least 89 families, 257 genera and 323 species of plants, including "Lara" (Metrosideros petiolata), "Sisio"(Cratoxylum formosum), "Kalapi" (Callicarpa celebica), "Tongke" (Bruguiera gimnorrhiza), Palm (Borassus flabellifer), and Lotus (Victoria spp.).

Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park (RAWNP) has many potential natural resources. According to the Governmen Administration, the national park is located in 4 district  :

  • 6.238 Ha in the Konawe district, located in the Lambuaya and Puriala subdistrict,
  • 12.824 Ha in the Kolaka district, located in the Tirawuta, Ladonggi Watubangga, and Tangketada subdistrict,
  • 40.527 Ha in the South Konawe district, located in the Anggata and Tinanggea subdistrict,
  • 45.605 Ha in the Bombana district, located in the Rorawatu subdistrict.
The park has varied vegetation : sub-montane rain forests, mangrove forests, coastal forests, savanna and freshwater swamp forests. It is home to Babirusa, both species of endangered Anoa, essentially miniature Water Buffaloes.

 Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park area is merger of a few conservation areas. The Watumohai Buru Park, Rawa Aopa Reservation, and Rumbia Land Buru Park.

Various species of bird also inhabit the park : 155 species have been recorded, of which 32 are endangered and 37 are endemic. Those 155 bird species include the Maleo fowl (Macrocephalon maleo), Lesser adjutant stork (Leptoptilos javanicus), Woolly necked Stork (Ciconia episcopus episcopus), Collared kingfisher (Halcyon chloris chloris), Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita triton), Vinous-breasted sparrowhawks (Accipiter rhodogaster rhodogaster), Sulawesi black pigeon (Turacoena manadensis), and Nicobar pigeon (Caloenas nicobarica). There is one type of bird that is endemic in South-east Sulawesi "Kacamata Sulawesi" (Zosterops consobrinum). These birds were never seen for tens of years ago, but now, we can see at Rawa Aopa Watumohai National Park

The Eastern tarsier (Tarsius spectrum spectrum) and Black-crested  macaque (Macaca nigra nigra) are among the primate species to be found here. Endangered and protected animals in the park include Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis), Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi), Water-hagedis Dragon (Hydrosaurus amboinensis), Small Cuscus (Strigocuscus celebensis celebensis), Timor Deer (Cervus timorensis djonga), Sulawesi palm Civets (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii musschenbroekii), and Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa celebensis).

Point of tourism to visit are Pulau Harapan, located in the center of Rawa Aopa to see a panoramic of natural wetlands, water birds and boating. Lanowulu beach, canoe along the river to the coast, mangrove forest, swimming and marine tourism. Watumohai mountain, hiking and camping. On the slopes of the mountain, there savanna to see hundreds of deer grazing, birds and other wildlive.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No.  756/Kpts-II/1990, December 17, 1999.

Lore Lindu

Lore Lindu National Park is a forested protected area on the Indonesia Island of Sulawesi, in the province of Central Sulawesi. Located on the beautiful yet complex looking rift valleys and steep folds of the mountains in the central part of Sulawesi. Lore Lindu National Park covers an area of 217.991,98 hectares, with an altitude range of 200 - 2.355 m above sea level. Geographical location between 119o57' - 120o22' East and 1o03' - 1o58' South.

The easiest access to visit the national park is from Palu to Kamarora (50 km in 2,5 hours drive). Due to alot of rainfall up to 4.000 mm/year in the southern part of the national park. The best time to visit is from July to September. The heaviest rain period occurs during the monsoon which lasts from November to April.

The boundaries of the park are defined by the Palolo Valley to the north. Napu Valley to the east and Bada Valley to the south. The western boundary is formed by a series of narrow valleys, known collectively as the Kulawi Valley. The Palolo, Napu, Lindu and Besoa Valleys were once lakes, now partially filled with sediment. Lake Lindu (Danau Lindu) is the only large lake remaining today. The small fish Oryzias sarasinorum is endemic to the lake. 

The climate is tropical with high humidity. Temperature vary only a few degrees over the course of the year, between 26o C - 32o C in lowland areas. The temperature drops in the highland areas about 6o C with every 1.100 metres rise in altitude.

The plant species that can be found in both lowland tropical forest and sub-montane forest include Eucalyptus deglupta, Pterospermum celebicum, Cananga odorata, Gnetum gnemon, Castanopsis argentea, Agathis philippinensis, Philaclados hypophyllus, medicinal plants, and rattan.

The biodiversity of this park is rich in animal species, with 117 species of mammals, 88 species of birds, 29 species of reptiles, and 19 species of amphibians. More than 50 % of the species inhabiting the park are endemic animals like the Tonkean macaque (Macaca tonkeana tonkeana), Babi Rusa (Babyrousa babyrussa celebensis), Diannae Tarsier (Tarsius diannae), Lesser-Sulawesi Tarsier (Tpumilus), Bear Cuscus (Ailurops ursinus furvus), Small  Cuscus (Strigocuscus celebensis callenfelsi), Sulawesi Rat (Rattus celebensis), Maleo Fowl (Macrocephalon maleo), Sulawesi Palm Civet (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii musschenbroekii), Gold Snake (Elaphe erythrura and Ejanseni), Sulawesi Frog (Bufo celebensis), and six fish species, including an endemic species in Lake Lindu, Xenopoecilus sarasinorum.

Surroundinng the park, there are 117 villages, from which 62 are located on the border of the park and one is within the park. The local population belongs to the Kaili, Kulavi and Lore ethnic groups. There are also migrants from South Sulawesi, Java and Bali.

Besides the riches of its natural resources, Lore Lindu National Park also has some impressive groups of megaliths which are among the best megalithic monuments in Indonesia. There are over 400 granite megaliths in the area, of which about 30 represent human forms. They vary in size from a few centimetres to 4.5 metres. The original purpose of the megaliths is unknown. Other megaliths are in form of large pots (Kalamba) and stone plates (Tutu'na). Various archeological studies have dated the carvings from between 3.000 BC to 1.300 AD.

Megalithic statues dot the Napu, Besoa and Bada valley, there are five categories classified by shape  :

  1. Megalith : these statues have human features, but only the face, shoulders and genetalia are usually distinct,
  2. Kalamba : these are stones ums, most probably sarcophagi associated with the burial of nobility.
  3. Tutu'na : these are large stone disks, probably the lids of Kalamba,
  4. Batu Dakon : these are flat or convex stones with channels, irregular pitting and other depressions,
  5. Others : include stone mortars, house supports and range of other shapes.

Declare by Ministry of Forestry No. 646/Kpts-II/1999. June 23, 1999.


Wakatobi National Park is located south east of Sulawesi, between 06o12' - 06o10' South  and 123o20' - 124o39' East, between  the  Banda Sea to the  north east  and the  Flores Sea to the south west.  Wakatobi  National  Park is a marine national park. The name of  Wakatobi  is an  acronim  of the  four main Tukang Besi Island,  it consist of  four  larger  island :  Wangi-wangi, Kaledupa, Tomia and Binongko. As well as many small island  such  as Tokobao, North Lintea, South Lintea, Kampe-naune,  Hoga and Tolandono. The highest elevation is 274 m above sea level on Wangi-wangi, followed by Logole Hill (271 asl) on Tomia, Terpadu Hill (222 m asl) on Binongko and Mount Sampuagiwolo (203 m asl) on Kaledupa.

Wakatobi National Park has very high marine resourced potential, in term of both species and uniqueness, with enchanting submarine landscapes. In term of configuration, the marine water of the park generally start flat and then slope seawards, with sheer precipices in some part. The water depth varies, the deepest parts reaching 1,044 with sand and coral at the bottom. This park has 25 chains of coral reefs, and the total circumference of the coral island is 600 kms. The national park includes area of 1,390,000 hectares.

The types of vegetation found in the national park are mangrove forest, coastal forest, lowland swamp forest, riverbank vegetation, lowland rainforest mountain rainforest and coral reefs. The Wakatobi archipelago has 25 groups of coral reefs including fringing reefs, barrier reefs and atolls. A survey conducted in 2003 identified 396 species of coral belonging to 68 genera and 15 families. These include  Acropora formosa, Acropora hyacinthus, Psammocora profundasafla, Pavona cactus, Leptoseris yabei, Fungia molucensis, Labophillia robusta, Merulina ampliata, Platygyra versifora, Euphyllia glabrescens, Tubastraea frondes, Stylophora pistillata, Sarcophyton throchelliophorum and Sinulariaspecies .

In addition, there are several species of sea bird such as : Swan-stone brown (Sula leucogaster plotus), Melayu Kettle (Charadrius peronii), The King Prawn Erasia (Alcedo atthis). There are three tipes of turtles that often landed on the island : Hawksbill Turtle (Eretmochelys Imbricata), Jars Turtle (Caretta caretta) and Turtle (Lepidochelys olivacea)

The two main settlement in the region are the administrative centre for the island Bau-bau, and the provincial capital of South East Sulawesi province, Kendari. In 2001 there were nearly 90,000 peoples living in the islands. The indigenous people who live around the park belong to the Bajau Tribe. Mention it made in the writings of ancient Chinese and European explorers of these legendary sailors who had managed to the reach or the distant shores of Merqui, Johor, Singapore, Sulawesi and Sulu. Of all the traditional seafaring communities throughout southeast Asia, only the Bajau have held on to their way of life. Locals spear-fishing on the sea bed without the aid of diving equipment are still a common sight.

Since late 2002, WWF has been collaborating in a unique partnership with The Nature Conservancy to assist the Wakatobi National Park authority to improve their management plan, zoning and implementation of park management. This partnership will help Wakatobi National Park implement effective management strategies  informed by the best science and local socio-economic realities. This will include the development of a collaborative management structure, short and long term financing plans, alternative livelihoods, and management modules such as outreach and awareness, monitoring, surveillance and park zoning.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 765/Kpts-II/1999, June 23, 1999.

Kepulauan Togean

Kepulauan Togean (Togean Islands)  National Park placed in Tomini Gulf, Tojo Una-una District, Central Sulawesi. Located in the transition zone Wallace and Weber lines and a group of a small island that lay in the middle of the Gulf of Tomini. Kepulauan Togean National Park is located at the geographical position at coordinates between 121o51'63" - 122o44'00" East and 00o07'43" - 00o65'06" South. Its covered an area of 362.605 hectares.

Kepulauan Togean National Park are a archipelago of six main and about 60 smaller islands. The six main islands are : Unauna, Batudaka, Togean, Talatakoh, Waleakodi, and Waleabahi. They lie on a submarine ridge in the south-east of the gulf and are of volcanic origin, actually Unauna in the north-west is an active volcano. The islands rise steeply from 1.200 to 1.500 m. 

The islands lies just a few kilometres south of the equator. The Togean include 3 main volcanic islands close together, and another one apart on the north that erupted last in 1984, as well as numerous islets.  This is the only place in the world where barrier reefs, atolls, and fringing reefs are found together.

Kepulauan Togean National Park has one that is not usually found in other national park  are found here, the wide variety of fruit trees. Fruit trees among other, similar to Jackfruit (Artocarpus integer), Durian (Durio zibethinus), Rao (Dracontomelon dao), Tea (Artocarpus elasticus), and Mango (Mangifera foetida). 

 Secondary tree species which are common is Kole (Alphitonia excelsa), Ndolia (Cananga odorata), Anthocephalus chinensis, Duabanga moluccana, Aistonia spedtabilis, Mallotus spp., and Macaranga spp. Alphitonia incanaand, Trichespemum morotaense that often dominate the stands at the secondary forest is one characteristic of secondary forest in Sulawesi. The same is also found in the vicinity of the Lore Lindu National Park also in Central Sulawesi, good forest conditions found in the area around the mid to top of Benteng Mountain. Here encountered many 'Durian' (Durio zibethinus) measuring diameter up to more than 80 cm.

According to research conducted by Conservation International, the area, which is located in Tomini Bay, is home to at least 596 fish species, two of them believed to be endemic to the area :  Paradheilinus togeanensis and Ecsenius.  Its also recorded 555 mollusk species from 103 families and 336 gastropod species.

The area was also home to at least 262 coral species, comprised  of 19 families, with 4 percent of them in excelent condition, 16 percent in good condition and 40 percent in moderate condition. The remaining 28 percent are poor condition and 12 percent in very poor condition.

Research also indentified at least 50 animal species living in local mangrovers, such as apes (10 genus), fishes (10 genus), amphibians (2 genus), reptiles (3 genus) and mammals (2 genus).

Delta Crocodiles (Crocodiylus porosus) can still found in mangroves around Kilat, Bambu dan Wakai Bay, as well as Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) and scaled turtles (Eretmochelis imbricate). Local residents also sometimes encounter the Dugong Sea Mammal in the area, where Nambo Seagrass is abundant.

Research also indicates that the area is home to at least 90 bird species, including the protected 'Sulawesi Julang' or 'Alo' (Rhyticeros cassidix) and the Bondol Eagle (Halistur indus).

For those with more specialised adventurous tastes, the Togean islan offer various for type of coral of the world can be found here (fringing reef), barrier reef, patch reef and atoll. Admirable places for snorkeling and diving. Four types of coral of the world can be found here (Fringing reef).

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 418/Menhut-II/2004. October 19, 2004

Bogani Nani Wartabone

Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park is located at Minahasa Peninsula, Sulawesi Indonesia. This national park has an area of 287.115  hectares.  Formerly known as Dumoga Bone National Park, it was established in 1991 and was rename in honour of Nani Wartabone, a local resistence fighter who drove the Japanese from Gorontalo during the World War II.

Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park is located in the transitional zone between the Indo-Malayan geographical zone in the western part and the Papua-Australian geographical zone in the eastern part (the Wallaceae Area).

Located at the geographical position between 123o08' - 124o14' East and 0o20' - 0o49' North, altitude 50 - 2.000 m above sea level, temperature 21o - 31o C, rainfall  average between 1.200 - 2.000 mm/year. Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park region upstream area of 2 important rivers in the area, namely the Onggak Dumoga River and Bone-Bolango River.

The forest of Bogani Nani Wartabone National park are one of the most important sites for conserving the island's unique and rich terrestrial flora and fauna. Lowland and sub-montane rainforest covers the area and provides habitats for a large number of endemic and globally threatened species such as the Anoa, Babirusa, 3 species of Macaques, and 19 globally threatened bird species.

Several pecurial and endangered species of plant inhabit this park, including the Matayangan Palm (Pholidocarpus ihur), Black Wood (Diospyros celebica), Iron Wood (Intsia sp.), Yellow Wood (Arcangelisia flava), and Carrion Flower (Amorphophallus companulatus). The most commonly found species are Piper oduncum, Trema orientalis, Macaranga sp., Agathis sp., Canangium odoratum, and various species of orchid and ornamental plant.

This park has 24 species of mammals, 125 species of birds, 11 species of reptiles, 2 species of amphibians, 38 species of butterflies, 200 species of beetle and 19 species of fish. Most animal living in this park are endemic species to Sulawesi, like the Black-crested Macaque (Macaca nigra nigra), Tomini Black-crested Macaque (Macaca nigrescens), Eastern Tarsier (Tarsius spectrum spectrum), Sulawesi Palm Civet (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii musschenbroekii), Lowland Anoa (Bubalus depressicornis), Mountain Anoa (Bubalus quarlesi), Babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa celebensis), and various bird species.

The mascot bird wildlife park is Maleo (Macrocephalon maleo), is a species endemic to the Bogan Nani Wartabone National Park. The size is similar to chicken, but the eggs 6 times the weight of chicken eggs. Maleo laying their eggs in the soil/sand 30 - 40 cm, and is usually located adjacent to the hot springs. With this geothermal Maleo egg hatch. The exit of the child Maleo from the ground, running children Maleo to the wild (day old), peek mother digging holes, are one of the interesting wildlife attractions for tourists.

The endemic Maleo birds have been bred succesfully in this park. As per February 2012, about 3.300 Maleo birds have been released to their habitat. Hungoyono camp in Bone Bolango is the largest Maleo habitat which the conservationists have 4 breeding sites. Normally the birds need geothermal hot sand for their breeding as in Hungoyono camp.

The route to get the Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park from Gorontalo city are 20 kms. This distance can be traveled in les than 1 hour by four wheels drive. Although not available yet complete supporting facilities. This park area already has several facilities including the guest house, laboratory researcher homestead, a path, the cottage work, guardhouse, camping ground, research station, shelters etc.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 1127/Kpts-II/1992. December 19, 1992.

Bantimurung Bulusaraung

Bantimurung Bulusarawung National Park (or abbreviated as Babul National Park), is located in South Sulawesi, an area of 43.750 hectares. Government administration of the park area is situated in Maros regency and Pangkajene islands (Pangkep) district. Geographically, this area lies between 119o34'17" - 119o55'13" East longitude and 4o42;49" - 5o06'42" South latitude.

In zoning, boundaries Babul National Park are as follows : North side bordering Pangkep, Barru and Bone, bordering the East the Maros regency and Bone County, bordering the South and West Maros district and bordered by pangkep. It contains the limestone hill of Maros Pangkep, the second largest karst area in the world after the one in South-eastern China.

The karst area has 286 caves which includes 16 pre-historic caves in Maros regency and 17 pre-historic caves in Pangkep, Bone regency.

 Besides waterfall with 2 caves, Dream cave (one kilometer long), on the left side and Stone cave on the right side of the waterfall, (inner) tubing is also can be done.

Located in the transition area of Asia and Australia zone, the National Park has many unique animal collection, such as Sulawesi Moor Macaque (Macaca maura), Red-knobbed Hornbill (Aceros cassidix, Penelopides exarhatus), Cuscus (Strigocuscus celebensis), Sulawesi Palm Civet (Macrogalidia musschenbroekii), Bat, and P0t-bellied existance of Tarsius fuscus (the smallest mammalian), and the also found its nest inside the area. Among crustacean biodiversity in the karst area, there is the one unique species called 'Spider crab' (Cancrocaeca xenomorpha) which is only found in Maros karst cave.

Beside insectarium, butterfly breeding centers, managed by both the reserve administrator and residents serve complete the metamorphosis process of the butterflies. There are many butterflies around the waterfalls, such as Troides helena Linne, Troides hypolitus Cramer, Troides haliphron Boisduval, Papilio peranthus adamantius and Cethosia myrana.

Alfred Russel Wallace dubbed the place as the 'Butterfly Kingdom'. During his exploration in 1957, Wallace found 256 butterfly species inside the National Park with some endemic species are Papilio blumei, Papilio polytes, Papilio sataspes, and Graphium androcles.

Since 1970s, butterflies already became export commodity from Bantimuring area. Not only sell to foreign countries, the local market also use this animals as materials to souvenirs, such as a raw specimen, butterfly frame, key chain, and many other accessories. In 2001, about 600.000 tourist came to this conservatory site and the management of this National Park changed the purpose of this butterfly conservatory from extraction and exploitation into natural ecosystem for tourist attraction. However, some sellers still catch and use butterflies form its original habitat, not from breeding or farming production. To preserve this animal, Indonesia government through National Species Conservation Strategic Direction 2008 - 2018, included wide variety of butterfly as one of priority in insect group.

The Conservation of Herpetofauna in Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park, South Sulawesi was conducted from Juli to September 2007. The project consisted of three main programs : herpetofauna surveys, conservation education for elementary to high school students and herp methods training.

A herpetofauna survey was conducted at six sites in Maros and Pangkep district representing forest and non-forest habitats. We recorded 37 reptile and amphibian species,  consisting of 24 reptiles and 13 frog species. Endemic species included the Celebes Toad (Bufo celebensis), Celebes Frog (Rana celebensis), Pipe Snake (Cylindrophis melanotus), Mueller's Reed Snake (Calamana muelleri), and the bow-fingered Gecko (Cyrtodactylus jellesmae). A complete species account is still in process.

Six schools around the national park were visited as part of our herpetofauna conservation education program. Student were given presentations on reptiles and amphibians and their general ecology and significance and learned about common species in the area. Several school were very interested in the program because this was the first time this kind of activity took place in their school and it changed their misconceptions of reptiles and amphibians and provide them with new knowledge and understanding.

Finally, the team presented gave training on Herpetofauna Observation Methods. The training was attended by 17 participants, including national park staff. Hasanudin University students, teachers from local school visited during our conservation educacation program and staff from several local NGOs. The four-day training took place in SKB Maros and Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 398/Menhut-II/2004. October 18, 2004.