Bukit Tigapuluh

Bukit Tigapuluh National Park (also called bukit Tiga Pulah and Bukit Tigapulah) or The Thirty Hills, is covered 144.223 hectares, located in Eastern Sumatera, Indonesia, consisting primarily of tropical lowland forest, largely in Riau Province, with a smaller part of 30.000 hectares in Jambi Province. It is famous as one of the last refuges of endangered species such as the Sumatran Orangutan, Sumatran Tiger, Sumatran Elephant, Sumatran Rhinoceros, and Asian Tapir, as well as many endangered bird species. It form part of the Tesso Nilo Complex biodiversity hotspot. The park is inhabited by the indigenous peoples of the "Orang Rimba" and "Talang Mamak" tribes.

Bukit Tigapuluh National Park is located at geographical between 102o13' - 102o45' East and 0o40' - 1o30' South, lying between 60 to 734 m above sea level, with the rainfall average 1.600 mm/annual, temperature 28o - 37o  C.

The park itself has been under consistent threat from illegal loging and palm oil plantation, with two thirds of the park logged.

Bukit Tigapuluh National Park has lowland tropical rain forest ecosystem. Its forest is the transition between mangrove forest and hilly forest. Having unique ecosystem makes the park different from others as it lies in sleep hills in the middle of eastern part of Sumatera's low land at the border of Jambi and Riau. In Jambi, the park occupies two regencies, West Tanjung Jabo (10.000 hectares) and Tebo (23.000 hectares).

Ecosystem tipes within the park include lowland and highland forests, with flora such as Gutta percha, Shorea, Alstonia scholaris, Dyera costulata, Koompassia excelsa, Rafflesia hasseltii, Daemonorops draco and various kinds of Rattan.

According to a 1994 survey Bukit Tigapuluh National Park has 59 species of mammal, 6 species of primate, 198 species of bird, 18 species of bat, and various species of butterfly.  Mammals include Sumatran Orangutan, Sumatran Tiger, Sumatran Elephant, Sumatran Rhinoceros, Asian Tapir, Sun Bear, Siamang, Crab-eating Macaque, Sumatran Surii, Sunda Loris, Clouded Leopard, Leopard Cat,  Marbled Cat, Malayan Civet, Indian Muntjac, Sumatran Serow, and Java Mouse-deer.

Bird species include : Great Argus, Little Green-pigeon, White-rumped Shama, White-bellied Woodpecker, Crested Serpent-eagle, Hill Myna, Helmeted Hornbill, Wrinkled Hornbill, White-winged Wood Duck, Storm's Stork, Garnet Pitta, and Grey-breasted Babbler.

The forests and its surrounding buffer area also provide homes for 'Orang Rimba (Kubu)' and 'Talang Mamak' forest dweling tribal communities all of whom have adapted to livinng in the environment in a sustainable way that has little impact on the ecosystem.

Orang Rimba, the 'People of the Forest' are an indigenous people, numbering 2.500, in Jambi Province. Approximately 364 live in the forests on Bukit Tigapuluh. The Orang Rimba have developed a traditional system of forest resources management, based on enrichment and selective enhancement of many tree and plant species. They generally collect non-wood forest product, hunt, and practice swidden cultivation. The fact that the Orang Rimba base their livelihood on the collection of forest products makes this forest of great importance to them.

Talang Mamak, known as a hinterland tribe, the Talang Mamak number only about 6.000 and depend on the natural resources found in the park in Riau's Indragiri Hulu regency

The Medicinal Biota Expedition found the Talang Mamak tribe use 100 and the Kubu tribe use 101 or medicinal plants and fungi tu cure over 50 diseases. Leaves are the most usable part of medical plants after roots, bark and sap. They have long known the plants and fungi as effective cures for common diseases such as rheumatism, dysentery, hepatitis, respiratory,ailments, malaria, goiter, skin rashes, coughs and diabetes. Some plants are also considered natural contraceptives. Usually the part of the plant are boiled then the water drunk as a herbal extract.

unfortunately, much of this area, which borders directly on the Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, is now designated for conversion to plantation, and the remainder is being degraded at a rapid rate, not merely by licensed logging companies but also by numerous illegal loggers. This all puts pressure on their traditional way of life.  Resettlement of poor people from Java and other provinces in Sumatera is threatening the survival of the native communities.  According to recent studies within four years 'newconers' controlled 30 % of the indigeous people's 3.275 hectares in Talang Lakat village.  The transmigrants activities are environmentally destructive; they exploit the forest and have taught the Talang Mamak to use chain saws to fell trees.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 6407/Kpts-II/2002. June `12, 2002.