Kayan Mentarang

Kayan Mentarang National Park is a densely forested national park in North Kalimantan province, Borneo Island, Indonesia. The national park is named after a great dispersed 'Mentarang' mountain trails plateau of 'Apau Kayan' which covers the entire park from Datadian area in south region to Apau Ping area in mid region until Long Bawan in north region.
Kayan Mentarang National Park is located at the border between Indonesia and Malaysia. The park is central to the WWF Heart of Borneo initiative, which aims to protect the transboundary highland or Borneo, which straddle the three South-east Asian Nations of Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam.

Kayan Mentarang National Park, with a total area of 1.360.500 hectares, geographical location between 114o49' - 116o16' East and 1o59' - 4o24', altitude 200 - 2.558 m above sea level, temperature between 16o - 30o C, rainfall average 3.100 mm/annual, forms the largest single area of primary and old secondary forest not only in Kalimantan, but in the whole of south-east Asia.

This park has an astonishing diversity of plant and animal species, many of which are either endangered or protected, a huge diversity of ecosystem type, from lowland rain forest to moss-covered forest in the high mountains.

Some plant that have already been recorded in the park include Pulai (Alstonia scholaris), Jelutung (Dyera costulata), Ramin (Gonystylus bancanus), Damar (Agathis borneensis), Kayu Ulin (Eusideroxylon zwageri), Rengas (Gluta wallichii), Gaharu (Aquilaria malacensis), various orchid species, plam trees and pitcher plants. There are still several plant that have not yet been identified as they all new plant species in Indonesia.

There are about 100 species of mammal (15 of them are endemic species), 8 species of primate and more than 310 species of bird, of which 28 are endemic to Kalimantan and have been registered by the ICBP (International Commitee for Bird Protection) as endangered species.

There are several rare species of mammal like the Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Sun Bear (Helarctos malayanus euryspilus), Hoss-leaf Monkey (Presbytis hosei canicrus), White-fronted-leaf Monkey (P. frontata frontata), Pig-tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrinanemestrina), and Banteng (Bos javanicus lowi).

About 16.000 Dayak people live inside or in close proximity to the Kayan Mentarang National Park. Roughly half of these people, mostly 'Kenyah' but with a small number of 'Kayan', 'Saben' and 'Punan', are primarily shifting cultivators. The rest mostly 'Lun Dayeh' and 'Lengilu' in the north are mainly wet rice farmers.

The inhabitants of the park and surrounding areas depend on hunting, fishing, and collecting wild plants for their subsistence needs. Trade in forest products such as gallstones (from langurs and porcupines) and aloes wood or gaharu (Aquailaria spp.), as well as revenues from temporary employment in Malaysia, are the principal ways to earn cash to purchase commercial goods, pay for school fees, and cover travel expenses to the lowlands. These activities have allowed  them to meet their basic needs and be self-sufficient under stable circumstances.

Average income levels of the people in many areas of the national park are above the average levels for the province of East Kalimantan. However, transportation costs are very high. only the existence of price subsidies has managed to keep price of essential goods under control. Nevertheless, local prices are still on average three to six times higher than in the lowland. People in part of 'Krayan', 'Lumbis', and 'Apo kayan' often travel acros the border to Malaysia to get sugar, salt and gasoline at lower prices.

Declared by Minister of Forestry No. 831/Kpts-II/1996. October 7, 1996.